Young Farley: [wincing while doing pullup] "No sir..."
Mr. Woodcock: "Rhetorical Farley. I already know the answer. You are a disgrace to fat, gelatinous, out of shape little kids the world over."
However the teaching skills I gained from an excellent P.E. program have been my most used in all the application. In the program we not only had the usual classroom lecture and discussions, but were fortunate to have the opportunity to apply P.E. lessons to classes at a small local private elementary school, who unfortunately did not have a full-time P.E. instructor. This gave us the chance to teach an entire semester of classes ranging from sport education, skill development, and dance.
No real particular order, but ones that stood out and have influenced me:
1. Body orientation. As a teacher it's important to position yourself to be able to see the entire class from where you stand. Having the ability to roam about the environment helping individuals, while with a quick glance, being able to assess the activity of the entire group. This means that even if a student comes up to you with a question or you are giving individual feedback, you still have your eyes and ears facing the entire group. Regardless it is a matter of repositioning yourself or the student, always have your eyes and ears towards the class.
Always be able to see and hear as much as possible.
2. Keep them active. Everytime we taught, our college instructor and one other fellow student would record instruction time and activity time. At the end of the day of teaching, we would tally up the number of minutes giving instruction in which the students sat or stood listening and the minutes the students were engaged in physical activity. Our goal was to have the students active for something like 75% of the time or more where students were moving. Having minimal instruction time, with maximal activity time, maintaining that the lesson was being comprehended. This forced instruction to be precise and concise.
Time is a huge limiting factor, maximize it. But please... don't just do stuff to do stuff... because energy can be just as limiting as time.
3. Specific feedback and correction. We were also recorded for the amount of feedback we gave and the type (along with being video taped). It was okay to give general feedback such as "good job!", or "nice work" but at a minimum. as our professor was really looking for was specific feedback. Whether it was evaluative or corrective, it needed to be specific; "Push the ground away from you", "bring your elbow towards the sky" (corrective); "you're doing a nice job of extending your elbow", or "good step on that throw" (evaluative). One of the main things I remember being emphasized was catching them while they are doing something good, using positive specific feedback (not raving praise, just 'neutral' compliment), while being vocal enough for the rest of the class to hear. If they heard how Johnny was doing a particular thing well, everyone paid attention and tried to be like Johnny doing that same thing he was doing.
Give specific, accurate feedback. Make it positive but don't 'drool' over something or someone.
3 1/2. Along with the specific feedback, another important ability is to be able to adjust back and forth between local and global feedback. Giving instruction/feedback to an individual in close proximity while quickly giving instruction/feedback to an individual at a distance away from you the teacher, and then quickly getting back to the individual closest to you again; easier understood seen done than said. This also relates to voice dynamics which I'll comes up in a later point, but having the ability to communicate effectively both near and far over a large group. All this relates back to body orientation and the ability to see and hear the entire group.
Be able to extend your communication over a large group and area.
4. Group feedback. Playing off number 3, group feedback was important because it often covers many issues that much of the entire group has/had. While maintaining good positioning for yourself to see the entire group, you may begin to see an error show up more than once by multiple students. At times it's important to stop the entire group and bring them together to make some specific points. Instead of spinning your head trying to correct each individual, group feedback allows a teacher to correct many students while only giving the feedback one time... basically just teaching efficiency.Teach efficiently, cover important points with the entire group.
5. Another opportunity with the individual or group feedback is to check comprehension. Instead of simply just 'spoon feeding' the information, asking the student(s) the question(s) regarding a specific movement, drill, or skill requires them to provide their own feedback on the situation at hand. The student(s) providing the feedback (answer) enhances the potential for the point to be learned affectively, drawing on the emotional specificity of it relating to him or herself, making the association (neural connection) stronger. Cold call if everyone stares with blank looks (this will help enhance engagement).
Strengthen comprehesion through questions.
You obviously don't want to go overboard on the group feedback, as the group will lose interest and motivation from excessive stop of everyones' activity. Only use it at a points where it necessary and will have a collective effect, even reinforcing things for the ones doing things correctly. Use your teaching/coaching sense...
6. Teacher enthusiasm, voice dynamics, and nonverbal behavior. Teaching enthusiasm affecting performance and learning goes without saying; a teacher excited about what he/she is teaching tends to care more and work harder to get the lessons across, while making the students feel that what they are doing is worthwhile. Along with enthusiasm comes voice dynamics and the ability to change loudness, pitch/tone, and timing of delivery. Included with the voice dynamics are nonverbal behaviors of the teacher, utilizing hand and body movements when presenting information. Having the uncanny ability to adapt the communication to different learners and situations is the most artistic ability in teaching/coaching. This takes continued practice and experience. This is as important of a skill a teacher/coach can possess and practice, there just isn't any substitute.
7. Demonstration. One of the best and most obvious ways to communicate in a physical setting is through the use of demonstration. A demonstration needs to be accurate and when possible it's important to use a student to demonstrate. Using a student to demonstrate, frees up the teacher to direct the students focus to specific aspects of the movement. Another possibility here is the use of media, which again leaves the teacher free to guide attention to particular points about what is being observed. It's vitally important for the teacher to guide the students observations of the demonstrations. The demonstrations need to be repeated multiple times, and it is thereafter, that more traditional verbal communication can be used because now words will have more relevance to students who now understand better what's being discussed. At this point a teacher can stress how and why a particular skill is performed a certain way.
Good demonstration breeds good demonstrators.
8. Cueing. Make cueing simple and precise; short phrases that are consistent and easily remembered (rhymes help a lot). Take the time to explain in greater detail the specific cues early, and from then on use the short, quick, and accurate phrases only when necessary.
Short and simple cues.*This last one I did not learn in about in my undergrad but I think has some pretty strong effects and is important to think about...
9. Teacher expectancy. This one's important and is a maybe a little less tangible, but the teachers expectation of the students really has a strong impact on achievement. Having belief in your students goes a long way with their success. The teacher is strong in their influence on the culture of the group and building a strong group culture is paramount in creating an achieving environment. An area of expectation that a coach or teacher might be well advised in looking into is the work of psychologist Claude Steele of Stanford University. His "stereotype threat" research is pretty interesting regarding performance and a coach might well invest the time to try to inflict a positive stereotype with his or her athletes within the culture of the team.
Again, this is just a few of the many concepts I gained from my physical education degree. I continue to practice and work on refining these concepts daily, but the fact that I had the opportunity to begin this practice over 10 years ago in my undergraduate education has allowed me to make some of these skills become more unconscious, freeing up conscious 'space' for other information/skills to hone. With that, my honest (albeit biased) suggestion for someone wondering what they should major in if they want to become a sport or performance coach is physical education.
*One of the things I am working on with regards to instruction and feedback is attentional focus. I am trying to come up with cues utilizing more of an external focus vs. internal focus. An obvious example is with a basketball player shooting; attentional focus on the rim and spin on the ball (external) vs. focus on the positioning of the shoulders and extension of the elbow and flexion of the wrist (internal).
Backed on research, external attentional focus wins 'hands down' in improving performance and decreasing muscle activity vs. internal attentional focus, making an athlete more accurate and efficient.
A specific example is, in the past I've struggled with teaching athletes how to bound well, even using good demonstration. Basically I had the athletes use their imagination about crossing a rapid river full of the deadly crocodiles and hungry hippos, and that stones were spaced apart across the river. Their objective: cross as quickly as possible leaping stone to stone avoiding the crocodiles and hippos... magically they bound pretty well. Cheesy I know, and athletes think I'm weird but its been effective. For shorter bounds, stones are closer together; long bounds, they're further apart. Another way to do this with an external focus, would be setting up mini-hurdles or objects at specific spacing to get the effect. The important aspect is to just learn the movement, once this is down the specifics can be adjusted and refined later. Another example of using external attentional focus is teaching tuck jumps and the athletes playing the role of Mario having to jump over barrels coming at them.
Obviously these things can be done with hurdles or other objects, but in large group settings and with minimal time, imagination can work pretty well.